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1992 Summer Olympics
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{{Redirect|Barcelona 1992|the Summer Paralympics|1992 Summer Paralympics}}{{use dmy dates|date=May 2019}}







factoids
| cauldron = Antonio RebolloEstadi Olímpic Lluís Companys>Estadi Olímpic de Montjuïc1988 Summer Olympics>Seoul 19881996 Summer Olympics>Atlanta 19961992 Winter Olympics>Albertville 19921994 Winter Olympics>Lillehammer 1994}}{{1992 Summer Olympics}}The 1992 Summer Olympics (Spanish: Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 1992; Catalan: Jocs Olímpics d'estiu de 1992), officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Barcelona, Spain from 25 July to 9 August 1992.Beginning in 1994, the International Olympic Committee decided to hold the Summer and Winter Olympics in alternating even-numbered years. The 1992 Summer Olympics was the occasion for the Summer and Winter Olympics to be staged in the same year.WEB,weblink Albertville 1992, www.olympic.org, 12 March 2010,weblink" title="wayback.archive-it.org/all/20140107032344weblink">weblink 7 January 2014, live, This Olympiad was the inaugural since the end of the Cold War and unaffected by boycotts, last experienced by the 1972 OlympiadWEB,weblink Barcelona 1992 Summer Olympics | Olympic Videos, Photos, News, Olympic.org, 4 December 2011, The Unified Team topped the medal table, winning 45 gold and 112 overall medals.

Host city selection

Barcelona is the second-largest city in Spain, and the hometown of then-IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch. The city was also a host for the 1982 FIFA World Cup. On 17 October 1986, Barcelona was selected to host the 1992 Summer Olympics over Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Belgrade, Yugoslavia; Birmingham, UK; Brisbane, Australia; and Paris, France, during the 91st IOC Session in Lausanne, Switzerland.WEB,weblink IOC Vote History, Aldaver.com, 4 December 2011, With 85 out of 89 members of the IOC voting by secret ballot, Barcelona won a majority of 47 votes. Samaranch abstained from voting. In the same IOC meeting, Albertville, France, won the right to host the 1992 Winter Games.WEB,weblink Barcelona gets 1992 Summer Olympics, Archives, 18 October 1986, Judith, Miller, The New York Times, Barcelona had previously bid for the 1936 Summer Olympics, that were held in Berlin.{| class="wikitable collapsible"! colspan="7" | 1992 Summer Olympics bidding resultsWEB,weblink Past Olympic Host City Election Results,weblink 30 June 2011, dead, !City! NOC NameRound 1Round 2Round 3Barcelona {{flag29 style="text-align:center;"37>47Paris {{flag19 style="text-align:center;"23Brisbane {{flag11 style="text-align:center;"10Belgrade {{flag13 style="text-align:center;"5Birmingham {{flag8 style="text-align:center;"—Amsterdam {{flag5 style="text-align:center;"—

Highlights

File:Dream Team at the 1992 Summer Olympics.JPEG|right|thumb|upright=0.8|David Robinson shoots a free throw for the gold-medal winning United States "Dream Team". ]]
  • At the opening ceremony, Greek mezzo-soprano Agnes Baltsa sang "Romiossini" as the Olympic flag was paraded around the stadium. Alfredo Kraus later sang the Olympic Hymn in Catalan, Spanish and French, as the flag was hoisted.
  • The Olympic cauldron was ignited using a flaming arrow, lit from the flame of the Olympic torch. It was shot by Paralympic archer Antonio Rebollo, who aimed the arrow over the top of the cauldron to ignite the gas emanating from it. The arrow landed outside the stadium.NEWS,weblink Ciudad Olímpica: La parábola del suspiro, Olympic City: The parable of the sigh, La Vanguardia, 27 July 1992, 36, Spanish, This unusual method for lighting the cauldron had been carefully designed to avoid any chance of the arrow landing in the stadium if Rebollo missed his target.NEWS,weblink BBC News, Ceremonial hall of shame, 15 September 2000, 27 March 2010, WEB,weblink Official Report of the Games of the XXV Olympiad, Barcelona 1992, v.4, 1992, LA84 Foundation, 84-7868-097-7, 72, The arrow described an arc and lit the gas issuing from the cauldron; the flame soared up to a height of three metres.,
  • South Africa rejoined the Summer Olympics having been banned for its apartheid policy after the 1960 Summer Olympics. The Women's 10,000 metres event was hotly contested. White South African runner Elana Meyer and black Ethiopian runner Derartu Tulu (winner) ran hand-in-hand in a victory lap.WEB,weblink Barcelona 1992: Did you know?, IOC, 2002, 4 April 2002, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20020404134346weblink">weblink
  • Germany sent a unified team having reunified in 1990, the last such team was at the 1964 Summer Olympics.
  • As the Soviet Union was dissolved in 1991, the Baltic nations of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, sent their own teams for the first time since 1936. The other former Soviet republics preferred to compete together as the Unified Team, which consisted of present-day Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. The Unified Team finished first in the medal standings, edging the United States.
  • The separation of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia led to the Olympic debuts of Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Due to United Nations sanctions, athletes from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia were not allowed to participate with their own team. However, some individual athletes competed under the Olympic flag as Independent Olympic Participants.
  • In basketball, the admittance of NBA players led to the formation of the "Dream Team" of the United States, featuring Michael Jordan, Magic Johnson, Larry Bird and other NBA stars. Prior to 1992, only European and South American professionals were allowed to compete, while the Americans used college players. The Dream Team won the gold medal and was inducted as a unit into the Basketball Hall of Fame in 2010.WEB, Hall of Famers: 1992 United States Olympic Team,weblink Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, 15 October 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100818075707weblink">weblink 18 August 2010,
  • Fermín Cacho won the 1,500 metres in his home country, earning Spain's first-ever Olympic gold medal in a running event.WEB,weblink Fermin Cacho Ruiz, Olympic.org, 25 August 2013,
  • Chinese diver Fu Mingxia, age 13, became one of the youngest Olympic gold medalists of all time.
  • In men's artistic gymnastics, Vitaly Scherbo from Belarus, (representing the Unified Team), won six gold medals, including four in a single day. Scherbo tied Eric Heiden's record for individual gold medals at a single Olympics, winning five medals in an individual event (Michael Phelps would later equal this record in 2008).
  • In women's artistic gymnastics, Tatiana Gutsu took gold in the All-Around competition edging the United States' Shannon Miller.
  • Russian swimmers (competing for the Unified Team) dominated the men's freestyle events, with Alexander Popov and Yevgeny Sadovyi each winning two events. Sadovyi also won in the relays.
  • Evelyn Ashford won her fourth Olympic gold medal in the 4×100-metre relay, making her one of only four female athletes to have achieved this in history.
  • The young Krisztina Egerszegi of Hungary won three individual swimming gold medals.
  • In women's 200 metre breaststroke, Kyoko Iwasaki of Japan won a gold medal at age of 14 years and six days, making her the youngest-ever gold medalist in swimming competitions at the Olympics.
  • Algerian athlete Hassiba Boulmerka, who was frequently criticized by Muslim groups in Algeria who thought she showed too much of her body when racing, received death threatsWEB,weblink Hassiba Boulmerka: Defying death threats to win gold, 11 February 2012, Chloe, Arnold, BBC News, Algiers, and was forced to move to Europe to train, won the 1,500 metres, also holding the African women's record in this distance.
  • After being demonstrated in six previous Summer Olympic Games, baseball officially became an Olympic sport. Badminton and women's judo also became part of the Olympic program, while slalom canoeing returned to the Games after a 20-year absence.
  • Roller hockey, Basque pelota, and taekwondo were all demonstrated at the 1992 Summer Olympics.
  • Several of the U.S. men's volleyball gold medal team from the 1988 Olympics returned to vie for another medal. In the preliminary round, they lost a controversial match to Japan, sparking them to shave their heads in protest. This notably included player Steve Timmons, sacrificing his trademark red flattop for the protest. The U.S. team ultimately progressed to the playoffs and won bronze.
  • Mike Stulce of the United States won the men's shot put, beating the heavily favored Werner Günthör of Switzerland.
  • On the 20th anniversary of the Munich massacre and the 500th anniversary of the Alhambra Decree, Yael Arad became the first Israeli to win an Olympic medal, winning a silver medal in judo. The next day, Oren Smadja became Israel's first male medalist, winning a bronze in the same sport.
  • Derek Redmond of Great Britain tore a hamstring during a 400-meter semi-final heat. As he struggled to finish the race, his father entered the track without credentials and helped him complete the race, to a standing ovation from the crowd.
  • Gail Devers came into the 100 meters hurdles as the favorite. Though her Olympic history shows her winning the 100 meters dash twice, the first time earlier in this Olympics, she primarily made her career as a hurdler. And true to form, Devers had a commanding lead in this race, until the final hurdle. Devers came up short and hit the hurdle, foot first, hard, knocking her off balance. She stumbled toward the finish line, falling on the last step, but still finished fifth, .001 out of fourth place.
  • Jennifer Capriati won the singles tennis competition at the age of 16. She had previously earned a spot in the semifinals of two grand slams at the age of 14.
  • Two gold medals were awarded in solo synchronized swimming after a judge inadvertently entered the score of "8.7" instead of the intended "9.7" in the computerized scoring system for one of Sylvie Fréchette's figures. This error ultimately placed Fréchette second, leaving Kristen Babb-Sprague for the gold medal. Following an appeal FINA awarded Fréchette a gold medal, replacing her silver medal and leaving the two swimmers both with gold.WEB,weblink On the Bright Side, CNN/SI, Michael, Farber, 30 July 1996, 16 September 2000,weblink dead,
  • Indonesia won its first-ever gold medal, after winning a silver medal at 1988 Olympics. Susi Susanti won the gold in badminton women's singles after defeating Bang Soo-hyun in the final round. Alan Budikusuma won the badminton men's singles competition, earning a second gold medal for Indonesia. Several years later, Susanti and Budikusuma married and she received the nickname golden bride or Olympic bride.

Records

Venues

File:Barcelona stadium.JPG|thumb|Estadi Olímpic de Montjuïc ]]File:Palau San Jordi Torre Calatrava Barcelona.jpg|thumb|Palau Sant Jordi and Montjuïc Communications TowerMontjuïc Communications Tower

Medals awarded

The 1992 Summer Olympic programme featured 257 events in the following 25 sports:{{col-begin}}{{col-1-of-4}}
  • Aquatics
    • {{GamesSport|Diving|Events=4|Format=d}}
    • {{GamesSport|Swimming|Events=31|Format=d}}
    • {{GamesSport|Synchronized swimming|Events=2|Format=d}}
    • {{GamesSport|Water polo|Events=1|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Archery|Events=4|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Athletics|Events=43|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Badminton|Events=4|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Baseball|Events=1|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Basketball|Events=2|Format=d}}
{{col-2-of-4}}
  • {{GamesSport|Boxing|Events=12|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Canoeing|Format=d}}
    • Sprint (12)
    • Slalom (4)
  • {{GamesSport|Cycling|Format=d}}
    • Road (3)
    • Track (7)
  • {{GamesSport|Equestrian|Format=d}}
    • Dressage (2)
    • Eventing (2)
    • Show jumping (2)
{{col-3-of-4}}
  • {{GamesSport|Fencing|Events=8|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Field hockey|Events=2|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Football|Events=1|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Gymnastics|Format=d}}
    • Artistic (14)
    • Rhythmic (1)
  • {{GamesSport|Handball|Events=2|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Judo|Events=14|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Modern pentathlon|Events=2|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Rowing|Events=14|Format=d}}
{{col-4-of-4}}
  • {{GamesSport|Sailing|Events=10|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Shooting|Events=13|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Table tennis|Events=4|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Tennis|Events=4|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Volleyball|Events=2|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Weightlifting|Events=10|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Wrestling|Format=d}}
    • Freestyle (10)
    • Greco-Roman (10)
{{col-end}}

Demonstration sports

  • {{GamesSport|Basque pelota|Events=10|Format=d}}
  • (File:Roller hockey pictogram.svg|20px) Roller hockey (quad) (1)
  • {{GamesSport|Taekwondo|Events=16|Format=d}}

Calendar

All times are in Central European Summer Time (UTC+2){| class="wikitable" style="margin:0.5em auto; font-size:90%;position:relative;" â— 
Opening ceremony bgcolor=#3399ff align=center â— Event finals bgcolor=#ee3333|Closing ceremony{| class="wikitable" style="margin:0.5em auto; font-size:90%; line-height:1.25em;"!rowspan=2|Date !colspan=8|July!colspan=9|August!24thFri!!25thSat!!26thSun!!27thMon!!28thTue!!29thWed!!30thThu!!31stFri!!1stSat!!2ndSun!!3rdMon!!4thTue!!5thWed!!6thThu!!7thFri!!8thSat!!9thSun align="center" Archery||||||| ● ● Archery at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's team Archery at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's team>●|| ||| align="center" Athletics|||||||Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 20 kilometres walk Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's shot put>●Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 100 metres Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 100 metres>●Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's marathon Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's javelin throw>●Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's high jump Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's hammer throw>●Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 3000 metres Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's heptathlon>●Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 10,000 metres Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 110 metres hurdles>● Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's triple jumpAthletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 800 metres>● Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 10 kilometres walk Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's discus throw>●|Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 400 metres Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 800 metres>●Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's discus throw Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 400 metres>● ●Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 200 metres Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 400 metres hurdles>● Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's long jumpAthletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's decathlon>● Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 200 metres Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 100 metres hurdles>●Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 3000 metres steeplechase Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 50 kilometres walk>● Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's pole vaultAthletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 10,000 metres>● Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's long jump Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's shot put>●Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 1500 metres Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 5000 metres>● Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 4 × 100 metres relayAthletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 4 × 400 metres relay>● Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's javelin throw Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 1500 metres>●Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 4 × 100 metres relay Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 4 × 400 metres relay>● ●● align="center" Badminton||||Badminton at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's Singles Badminton at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's Singles>●Badminton at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's Doubles Badminton at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's Doubles>●|||| | align="center" Baseball|| ||●| | | | align="center" Basketball|||● ● | align="center" Boxing|||Boxing at the 1992 Summer Olympics#Light Flyweight (– 48 kg) Boxing at the 1992 Summer Olympics#Welterweight (– 67 kg)>● Boxing at the 1992 Summer Olympics#Bantamweight (– 54 kg)Boxing at the 1992 Summer Olympics#Lightweight (– 60 kg)>● Boxing at the 1992 Summer Olympics#Middleweight (– 75 kg) Boxing at the 1992 Summer Olympics#Heavyweight (– 91 kg)>●Boxing at the 1992 Summer Olympics#Flyweight (– 51 kg) Boxing at the 1992 Summer Olympics#Featherweight (– 57 kg)>● Boxing at the 1992 Summer Olympics#Light Welterweight (– 63.5 kg)Boxing at the 1992 Summer Olympics#Light Middleweight (– 71 kg)>● Boxing at the 1992 Summer Olympics#Super Heavyweight (+ 91 kg) Boxing at the 1992 Summer Olympics#Light Heavyweight (– 81 kg)>● align="center" Canoeing||||||||Canoeing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's slalom C-1 Canoeing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's slalom K-1>●Canoeing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's slalom K-1 Canoeing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's slalom C-2>● Canoeing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's K-1 500 metres Canoeing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's K-2 500 metres>● Canoeing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's C-1 500 metresCanoeing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's C-2 500 metres>● Canoeing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's K-1 500 metres Canoeing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's K-2 500 metres>●Canoeing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's K-1 1000 metres Canoeing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's K-2 1000 metres>● Canoeing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's K-4 1000 metresCanoeing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's C-1 1000 metres>● Canoeing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's C-2 1000 metres Canoeing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's K-4 500 metres>●| align="center" Cycling||Cycling at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's team time trial Cycling at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's road race>● ●●Cycling at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's sprint Cycling at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's points race>●Cycling at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's team pursuit Cycling at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's sprint>● ●|●||||||| align="center" Diving|| ● ●| | ● ●|||||| align="center" Equestrian||||Equestrian at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Individual eventing Equestrian at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Team eventing>●|●|●●|● align="center" Fencing||||||●●●● ●●●●|| align="center" Field hockey||| ●●| align="center" Football| |||| ●| align="center" Gymnastics||||●●●●Gymnastics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's floor Gymnastics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's vault>●Gymnastics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's uneven bars Gymnastics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's balance beam>●Gymnastics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's floor Gymnastics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's vault>● Gymnastics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's parallel barsGymnastics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's horizontal bar>● Gymnastics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's rings Gymnastics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's pommel horse>●||||●| align="center" Handball||||| Handball at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's tournament Handball at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's tournament>●| align="center" Judo|||Judo at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's +95 kg Judo at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's +72 kg>●Judo at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 95 kg Judo at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 72 kg>●Judo at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 86 kg Judo at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 66 kg>●Judo at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 78 kg Judo at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 61 kg>●Judo at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 71 kg Judo at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 56 kg>●Judo at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 65 kg Judo at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 52 kg>●Judo at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 60 kg Judo at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 48 kg>●||||||| align="center" Modern pentathlon||Modern pentathlon at the 1992 Summer Olympics#Individual Events Modern pentathlon at the 1992 Summer Olympics#Team competition>●|||||||||| | align="center" Rowing|||Rowing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's single sculls Rowing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's double sculls>●Rowing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's coxless pair Rowing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's coxed four>●Rowing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's double sculls Rowing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's coxless pair>● ●Rowing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's quadruple sculls Rowing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's coxless four>● Rowing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's eightRowing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's single sculls>● Rowing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's quadruple sculls Rowing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's eight>●||||||| align="center" Sailing||||Sailing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Lechner A-390 Men's Sailing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Lechner A-390 Women's>●Sailing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Europe Sailing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Finn>● Sailing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 470Sailing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 470>● Sailing at the 1992 Summer Olympics - Star Sailing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Tornado class>● ●●||||| align="center" Shooting||Shooting at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 50 metre pistol Shooting at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 10 metre air rifle>●Shooting at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 10 metre air rifle Shooting at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 25 metre pistol>●Shooting at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 10 metre air pistol Shooting at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Skeet>●●Shooting at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 25 metre rapid fire pistol Shooting at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 50 metre rifle three positions>●Shooting at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 50 metre rifle three positions Shooting at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 10 metre air pistol>●●Shooting at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 50 metre rifle three positions Shooting at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Trap>●||||||| align="center" Swimming||Swimming at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 200 metre freestyle Swimming at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 100 metre breaststroke>●Swimming at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 100 metre freestyle Swimming at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 400 metre individual medley>●Swimming at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 100 metre butterfly Swimming at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 400 metre individual medley>●Swimming at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 4 × 200 metre freestyle relay Swimming at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 200 metre freestyle>● ●Swimming at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 100 metre freestyle Swimming at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 200 metre backstroke>●Swimming at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 400 metre freestyle Swimming at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 100 metre backstroke>● ●Swimming at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 400 metre freestyle Swimming at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 200 metre breaststroke>●Swimming at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 4 × 100 metre freestyle relay Swimming at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 100 metre breaststroke>● ●Swimming at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 50 metre freestyle Swimming at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 100 metre backstroke>● Swimming at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 200 metre butterflySwimming at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 800 metre freestyle>● Swimming at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 200 metre individual medley Swimming at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 4 × 100 metre medley relay>●Swimming at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 1500 metre freestyle Swimming at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 200 metre individual medley>● Swimming at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 4 × 100 metre medley relaySwimming at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 50 metre freestyle>● Swimming at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 200 metre backstroke Swimming at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's 200 metre butterfly>●||||||||| align="center" Synchronized swimming|||||||||| ● ●|| align="center" Table tennis||||●●●●| | | align="center" Tennis||||Tennis at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's Singles Tennis at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's Doubles>●Tennis at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's Singles Tennis at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Women's Doubles>●| align="center" Volleyball||| ●● align="center" Water polo||||||||||● align="center" Weightlifting||●●●●●|●●Weightlifting at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 82.5 kg Weightlifting at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's 110 kg>●●||||| align="center" Wrestling|| Wrestling at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's Greco-Roman 52 kgWrestling at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's Greco-Roman 68 kg>● ●Wrestling at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's Greco-Roman 48 kgWrestling at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's Greco-Roman 74 kg>● ●Wrestling at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's Greco-Roman 57 kg Wrestling at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's Greco-Roman 62 kg>●Wrestling at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's Greco-Roman 82 kg Wrestling at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's Greco-Roman 90 kg>●|||Wrestling at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's freestyle 52 kgWrestling at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's freestyle 68 kg>● ●Wrestling at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's freestyle 48 kgWrestling at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's freestyle 74 kg>● ●Wrestling at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's freestyle 57 kg Wrestling at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's freestyle 62 kg>●Wrestling at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's freestyle 82 kg Wrestling at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's freestyle 90 kg>●||! Total gold medals !! !! !! 9 !! 12 !! 14 !! 17 !! 19 !! 19 !! 22 !! 30 !! 18 !! 11 !! 12 !! 12 !! 22 !! 30 !! 101992 Summer Olympics Opening Ceremony>●!rowspan=2|Date!24thFri!!25thSat!!26thSun!!27thMon!!28thTue!!29thWed!!30thThu!!31stFri!!1stSat!!2ndSun!!3rdMon!!4thTue!!5thWed!!6thThu!!7thFri!!8thSat!!9thSun!colspan=8|July!colspan=9|August

Participating National Olympic Committees

(File:1992 Summer Olympic games countries.png|thumb|Participants)(File:1992 Summer olympics team numbers.gif|thumb|Participating countries by number of competitors)A total of 169 nations sent athletes to compete in the 1992 Summer Games.With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, twelve of the fifteen new states chose to form a Unified Team, while the Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania each entered their own teams for the first time since 1936. For the first time, Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia-Herzegovina competed as independent nations after their separation from Socialist Yugoslavia, and Namibia and the unified team of Yemen (previously North and South Yemen) also made their Olympic debuts.The 1992 Summer Olympics notably marked Germany competing as a unified team for the first time since 1964, while South Africa returned to the Games for the first time in 32 years.The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was banned due to UN sanctions, but individual Yugoslav athletes were allowed to take part as Independent Olympic Participants. Four National Olympic Committees did not send any athletes to compete: Afghanistan, Brunei, Liberia and Somalia.{| class="wikitable collapsible" style="width:100%;"! Participating (:Category:Nations at the 1992 Summer Olympics|National Olympic Committees)|{{div col|colwidth=22em}}
  • {{flagIOC|ALB|1992 Summer|8}}
  • {{flagIOC|ALG|1992 Summer|38}}
  • {{flagIOC|ASA|1992 Summer|3}}
  • {{flagIOC|AND|1992 Summer|8}}
  • {{flagIOC|ANG|1992 Summer|39}}
  • {{flagIOC|ANT|1992 Summer|13}}
  • {{flagIOC|ARG|1992 Summer|107}}
  • {{flagIOC|ARU|1992 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|AUS|1992 Summer|295}}
  • {{flagIOC|AUT|1992 Summer|107}}
  • {{flagIOC|BAH|1992 Summer|15}}
  • {{flagIOC|BRN|1992 Summer|13}}
  • {{flagIOC|BAN|1992 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|BAR|1992 Summer|17}}
  • {{flagIOC|BEL|1992 Summer|68}}
  • {{flagIOC|BIZ|1992 Summer|10}}
  • {{flagIOC|BEN|1992 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|BER|1992 Summer|20}}
  • {{flagIOC|BHU|1992 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|BOL|1992 Summer|14}}
  • {{flagIOC|BIH|1992 Summer|10}}
  • {{flagIOC|BOT|1992 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|BRA|1992 Summer|195}}
  • {{flagIOC|IVB|1992 Summer|4}}
  • {{flagIOC|BUL|1992 Summer|139}}
  • {{flagIOC|BUR|1992 Summer|4}}
  • {{flagIOC|CMR|1992 Summer|11}}
  • {{flagIOC|CAN|1992 Summer|304}}
  • {{flagIOC|CAY|1992 Summer|10}}
  • {{flagIOC|CAF|1992 Summer|16}}
  • {{flagIOC|CHA|1992 Summer|7}}
  • {{flagIOC|CHI|1992 Summer|14}}
  • {{flagIOC|CHN|1992 Summer|246}}
  • {{flagIOC|COL|1992 Summer|51}}
  • {{flagIOC|CGO|1992 Summer|7}}
  • {{flagIOC|COK|1992 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|CRC|1992 Summer|16}}
  • {{flagIOC|CRO|1992 Summer|41}}
  • {{flagIOC|CUB|1992 Summer|187}}
  • {{flagIOC|CYP|1992 Summer|17}}
  • {{flagIOC|TCH|1992 Summer|209}}
  • {{flagIOC|DEN|1992 Summer|117}}
  • {{flagIOC|DJI|1992 Summer|8}}
  • {{flagIOC|DOM|1992 Summer|32}}
  • {{flagIOC|ECU|1992 Summer|13}}
  • {{flagIOC|EGY|1992 Summer|83}}
  • {{flagIOC|ESA|1992 Summer|4}}
  • {{flagIOC|GEQ|1992 Summer|7}}
  • {{flagIOC|EST|1992 Summer|37}}
  • {{flagIOC|ETH|1992 Summer|23}}
  • {{flagIOC|FIJ|1992 Summer|19}}
  • {{flagIOC|FIN|1992 Summer|89}}
  • {{flagIOC|FRA|1992 Summer|376}}
  • {{flagIOC|GAB|1992 Summer|8}}
  • {{flagIOC|GAM|1992 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|GER|1992 Summer|486}}
  • {{flagIOC|GHA|1992 Summer|37}}
  • {{flagIOC|GBR|1992 Summer|376}}
  • {{flagIOC|GRE|1992 Summer|72}}
  • {{flagIOC|GRN|1992 Summer|4}}
  • {{flagIOC|GUM|1992 Summer|22}}
  • {{flagIOC|GUA|1992 Summer|14}}
  • {{flagIOC|GUI|1992 Summer|8}}
  • {{flagIOC|GUY|1992 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|HAI|1992 Summer|7}}
  • {{flagIOC|HON|1992 Summer|10}}
  • {{flagIOC|HKG|1992 Summer|38}}
  • {{flagIOC|HUN|1992 Summer|222}}
  • {{flagIOC|ISL|1992 Summer|29}}
  • {{flagIOC|IND|1992 Summer|53}}
  • {{flagIOC|IOP|1992 Summer|58}}
  • {{flagIOC|INA|1992 Summer|47}}
  • {{flagIOC|IRI|1992 Summer|40}}
  • {{flagIOC|IRQ|1992 Summer|9}}
  • {{flagIOC|IRL|1992 Summer|58}}
  • {{flagIOC|ISR|1992 Summer|31}}
  • {{flagIOC|ITA|1992 Summer|323}}
  • {{flagIOC|CIV|1992 Summer|13}}
  • {{flagIOC|JAM|1992 Summer|36}}
  • {{flagIOC|JPN|1992 Summer|272}}
  • {{flagIOC|JOR|1992 Summer|7}}
  • {{flagIOC|KEN|1992 Summer|51}}
  • {{flagIOC|PRK|1992 Summer|64}}
  • {{flagIOC|KOR|1992 Summer|244}}
  • {{flagIOC|KUW|1992 Summer|36}}
  • {{flagIOC|LAO|1992 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|LAT|1992 Summer|34}}
  • {{flagIOC|LIB|1992 Summer|13}}
  • {{flagIOC|LES|1992 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|LBA|1992 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|LIE|1992 Summer|7}}
  • {{flagIOC|LTU|1992 Summer|47}}
  • {{flagIOC|LUX|1992 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|MAD|1992 Summer|14}}
  • {{flagIOC|MAW|1992 Summer|4}}
  • {{flagIOC|MAS|1992 Summer|28}}
  • {{flagIOC|MDV|1992 Summer|7}}
  • {{flagIOC|MLI|1992 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|MLT|1992 Summer|7}}
  • {{flagIOC|MTN|1992 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|MRI|1992 Summer|13}}
  • {{flagIOC|MEX|1992 Summer|134}}
  • {{flagIOC|MON|1992 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|MGL|1992 Summer|33}}
  • {{flagIOC|MAR|1992 Summer|53}}
  • {{flagIOC|MOZ|1992 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|MYA|1992 Summer|4}}
  • {{flagIOC|NAM|1992 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|NEP|1992 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|NED|1992 Summer|215}}
  • {{flagIOC|AHO|1992 Summer|4}}
  • {{flagIOC|NZL|1992 Summer|137}}
  • {{flagIOC|NCA|1992 Summer|8}}
  • {{flagIOC|NIG|1992 Summer|3}}
  • {{flagIOC|NGR|1992 Summer|57}}
  • {{flagIOC|NOR|1992 Summer|85}}
  • {{flagIOC|OMA|1992 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|PAK|1992 Summer|27}}
  • {{flagIOC|PAN|1992 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|PNG|1992 Summer|13}}
  • {{flagIOC|PAR|1992 Summer|30}}
  • {{flagIOC|PER|1992 Summer|16}}
  • {{flagIOC|PHI|1992 Summer|34}}
  • {{flagIOC|POL|1992 Summer|205}}
  • {{flagIOC|POR|1992 Summer|100}}
  • {{flagIOC|PUR|1992 Summer|75}}
  • {{flagIOC|QAT|1992 Summer|31}}
  • {{flagIOC|ROM|1992 Summer|176}}
  • {{flagIOC|RWA|1992 Summer|10}}
  • {{flagIOC|VIN|1992 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|SMR|1992 Summer|17}}
  • {{flagIOC|KSA|1992 Summer|9}}
  • {{flagIOC|SEN|1992 Summer|21}}
  • {{flagIOC|SEY|1992 Summer|11}}
  • {{flagIOC|SLE|1992 Summer|11}}
  • {{flagIOC|SIN|1992 Summer|14}}
  • {{flagIOC|SLO|1992 Summer|35}}
  • {{flagIOC|SOL|1992 Summer|1}}
  • {{flagIOC|RSA|1992 Summer|94}}
  • {{flagIOC|ESP|1992 Summer|489}} (host)
  • {{flagIOC|SRI|1992 Summer|11}}
  • {{flagIOC|SUD|1992 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|SUR|1992 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|SWZ|1992 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|SWE|1992 Summer|192}}
  • {{flagIOC|SUI|1992 Summer|114}}
  • {{flagIOC|SYR|1992 Summer|10}}
  • {{flagIOC|TPE|1992 Summer|37}}
  • {{flagIOC|TAN|1992 Summer|9}}
  • {{flagIOC|THA|1992 Summer|47}}
  • {{flagIOC|TOG|1992 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|TGA|1992 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|TRI|1992 Summer|7}}
  • {{flagIOC|TUN|1992 Summer|14}}
  • {{flagIOC|TUR|1992 Summer|47}}
  • {{flagIOC|UGA|1992 Summer|8}}
  • {{flagIOC|EUN|1992 Summer|475}}
  • {{flagIOC|UAE|1992 Summer|14}}
  • {{flagIOC|USA|1992 Summer|545}}
  • {{flagIOC|URU|1992 Summer|23}}
  • {{flagIOC|VAN|1992 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|VEN|1992 Summer|37}}
  • {{flagIOC|VIE|1992 Summer|7}}
  • {{flagIOC|ISV|1992 Summer|24}}
  • {{flagIOC|SAM|1992 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|YEM|1992 Summer|13}}
  • {{flagIOC|ZAI|1992 Summer|17}}
  • {{flagIOC|ZAM|1992 Summer|9}}
  • {{flagIOC|ZIM|1992 Summer|19}}
{{div col end}}
  • {{flagIOC|BRU}} participated in the Opening Ceremony, but its delegation consisted of only one official. This also occurred in the 1988 GamesBOOK, 1992 Olympics Official Report. Part IV,weblink PDF, 24 October 2012, List of participants by NOC's and sport., {{YouTube|3Dfntr38rwc|Barcelona 1992 Opening Ceremony Parade of Nations 2/8}}
  • {{Flagicon|AFG|1987}} Afghanistan didn't send their athletes to compete, but the country took part in the Parade of Nations.{{YouTube|-Rtfp1oCkGk|Barcelona 1992 Opening Ceremony Parade of Nations 1/8}}
  • {{flagIOC|LBR}}{{YouTube|7mSyyqxSLEA|Barcelona 1992 Opening Ceremony Parade of Nations 4/8}} and {{flagIOC|SOM}}{{YouTube|uddDBgdFF04|Barcelona 1992 Opening Ceremony Parade of Nations 6/8}} also participated in the Opening Ceremony, but its accredited athletes (five and two, respectively) did not enter to compete.

Medal count

The following table reflects the top ten nations in terms of total medals won at the 1992 Games (the host nation is highlighted).{hide}Medals table
| caption =
| host =
| show_limit =
| remaining_text =
| flag_template = flagIOC
| event = 1992 Summer
| team =
| gold_EUN = 45 | silver_EUN = 38 | bronze_EUN = 29
| gold_USA = 37 | silver_USA = 34 | bronze_USA = 37
| gold_GER = 33 | silver_GER = 21 | bronze_GER = 28
| gold_CHN = 16 | silver_CHN = 22 | bronze_CHN = 16
| gold_CUB = 14 | silver_CUB = 6 | bronze_CUB = 11
| gold_ESP = 13 | silver_ESP = 7 | bronze_ESP = 2 | host_ESP = yes
| gold_KOR = 12 | silver_KOR = 5 | bronze_KOR = 12
| gold_HUN = 11 | silver_HUN = 12 | bronze_HUN = 7
| gold_FRA = 8 | silver_FRA = 5 | bronze_FRA = 16
| gold_AUS = 7 | silver_AUS = 9 | bronze_AUS = 11
{edih}

Broadcast rights

The 1992 Summer Olympics were covered by the following television and radio broadcasters:BOOK, Television in the Olympics : international research project, 1995, James F. Larson, 978-0861965380, 257–260,weblink illustrated, Miquel de Moragas, Nancy Kay Rivenburgh, 27 April 2013, {| class="wikitable collapsible collapsed hlist"!Territory!Television!RadioAlgeria}}Entreprise nationale de télévision>ENTV|Argentina}}| Australia}}| Austria}}ORF (broadcaster)>ORFORF (broadcaster)>ORFBelarus|1991}}Belarus TV>btv|Belgium}}| Brazil}}| Bulgaria}}Bulgarian National Television>BNT|Canada}}| Chile}}| China}}China Central Television>CCTVChina National Radio>CPBSCIS}}| Colombia}}| Croatia}}Croatian Radiotelevision>HRTCroatian Radiotelevision>HRTCuba}}Cuban Institute of Radio and Television>ICRTCuban Institute of Radio and Television>ICRTCyprus}}Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation>CyBC|Czechoslovakia}}Czechoslovak Television>ČST|Czechoslovak RadioDenmark}}DR (broadcaster)>DRDR (broadcaster)>DREgypt}}|ERTU|ERTUEstonia}}Eesti Televisioon>ETV|Finland}}|Yle|YleFrance}}| Germany}}| ARD (broadcaster)>ARDGreece}}Hellenic Broadcasting Corporation>ERTHellenic Broadcasting Corporation>ERTHong Kong|colonial}}| Hungary}}Magyar Televízió>MTV|Magyar RádióIceland}}|RÚV|RÚVIndia}}|Doordarshan|Indonesia}}| Iran}}|Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting|Ireland}}Raidió Teilifís Éireann>RTÉRaidió Teilifís Éireann>RTÉIsrael}}Israel Broadcasting Authority>IBAIsrael Broadcasting Authority>IBAItaly}}|RAI|RAIJapan}}| Jordan}}Jordan Radio and Television Corporation>JRTV|Lebanon}}|Télé Liban|Libya|1977}}Libyan Jamahiriya Broadcasting Corporation>LJBC|Lithuania|1990}}LRT televizija>LTV|Luxembourg}}RTL Télé Lëtzebuerg>RTLRTL Télé Lëtzebuerg>RTLMacau|colonial}}| TDM (Macau)>TDMMalaysia}}| Radio Televisyen Malaysia>RTMMalta}}Public Broadcasting Services>MBA|Mexico}}| Monaco}}Radio Monte Carlo>RMCRadio Monte Carlo>RMCMongolia}}|Mongolian TV|Morocco}}Société Nationale de Radiodiffusion et de Télévision>RTMSociété Nationale de Radiodiffusion et de Télévision>RTMNetherlands}}Nederlandse Omroep Stichting>NOSNederlandse Omroep Stichting>NOSNew Zealand}}Television New Zealand>TVNZRadio New Zealand>RNZNorway}}|NRK|NRKPakistan}}Pakistan Television Corporation>PTVPakistan Broadcasting Corporation>PBCPhilippines}}| Poland}}Telewizja Polska>TVPPolskie Radio>PR S.A.Portugal}}Rádio e Televisão de Portugal>RTPRádio e Televisão de Portugal>RDPPuerto Rico}}Puerto Rico Public Broadcasting Corporation>WIPR|Romania}}Romanian Television>TVRRomanian Radio Broadcasting Company>Radio RomâniaSingapore}}Singapore Broadcasting Corporation>SBC Channel 12|Slovenia}}RTV Slovenija>RTVSLORTV Slovenija>RTVSLOSouth Africa|1928}}South African Broadcasting Corporation>SABC|South Korea}}| Spain}}Televisión Española>TVE (host broadcaster)| Sweden}}Sveriges Television>SVTSveriges Radio>SRSwitzerland}}| Taiwan}}| Thailand}}| Tunisia}}Établissement de la Radiodiffusion-Télévision Tunisienne>ERTT|Turkey}}Turkish Radio and Television Corporation>TRTTurkish Radio and Television Corporation>TRTUnited Kingdom}}| United States}}Olympics on NBC>NBC|West Coast Talk RadioVenezuela|1954}}|

Terrorism

The Basque nationalist group ETA attempted to disrupt the Barcelona Games with terrorist attacks. It was already feared beforehand that ETA would use the Olympics to gain publicity for their cause in front of a worldwide audience.BOOK,weblink Securing and Sustaining the Olympic City: Reconfiguring London for 2012 and Beyond, Pete, Fussey, Jon, Coaffee, Dick, Hobbs, April 2011, Routledge, 9780754679455, 48, As the time of the Games approached,WEB,weblink CTV News - CTV News Channel, www.ctvnews.ca, 17 January 2019, ETA committed attacks in Barcelona and the Catalonia region as a whole, including the deadly 1991 Vic bombing.WEB,weblink Spain Tackles Terrorist Threat By Basques to Olympics, Expo, 1 April 1992, 17 January 2019, Christian Science Monitor, WEB,weblink The Threat to the Games in Spain, Beth, Finkelstein, Noel, Koch, 11 August 1991, The Washington Post,weblink 30 July 2018, dead, On 10 July 1992, the group offered a two-month truce covering the Olympics in exchange for negotiations, which the Spanish government rejected.WEB,weblink Eta rebuffed, 13 July 1992, The Independent, 17 January 2019, However, the Games went ahead successfully without an attack.BOOK,weblink Western Europe 2017-2018, 9781475835090, Thompson, Wayne C, 31 August 2017,

Effect on the city

File:050529 Barcelona 049.jpg|thumb|Frank Gehry's Fish sculpture in front of the Hotel Arts (left) and the Torre MapfreTorre MapfreThe celebration of the 1992 Olympic Games had an enormous impact on the urban culture and outward projection of Barcelona. The Games provided billions of dollars for infrastructure investments, which are considered to have improved the quality of life in the city, and its attraction for investment and tourism.WEB,weblink The economic impact of the Barcelona Olympic Games, 1986–2004, 2005, Brunet, Ferran, Autonomous University of Barcelona,weblink 22 July 2009, dead, Barcelona became one of the most visited cities in Europe after Paris, London, and Rome.WEB,weblink The Olympics Effect, Payne, Bob, 6 August 2008, MSNBC,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080902014838weblink">weblink 2 September 2008, dead, WEB,weblink Top 150 City Destinations: London Leads the Way, Bremner, Caroline, 11 October 2007, Euromonitor International,weblink 4 September 2009, dead, Barcelona's nomination for the 1992 Summer Olympics sparked the implementation of an ambitious plan for urban transformation that had already been developed previously.WEB,weblink An economic analysis of the Barcelona '92 Olympic Games: resources, financing, and impact, 1995, Brunet, Ferran, Autonomous University of Barcelona,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170905050923weblink">weblink 5 September 2017, dead, Barcelona was opened to the sea with the construction of the Olympic Village and Olympic Port in Poblenou. New centres were created, and modern sports facilities were built in the Olympic zones of Montjuïc, Diagonal, and Vall d'Hebron; hotels were also refurbished and new ones built. The construction of ring roads around the city helped to reduce traffic density, and El Prat airport was modernized and expanded with the opening of two new terminals.WEB,weblink Lessons of Barcelona: 1992 Games provided model for London... and few warnings, Beard, Matthew, London Evening Standard, 22 March 2011, 31 March 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110405170255weblink">weblink 5 April 2011, dead,

Cost and cost overrun

The Oxford Olympics StudyBOOK, 2804554, The Oxford Olympics Study 2016: Cost and Cost Overrun at the Games, Flyvbjerg, Bent, Stewart, Allison, Budzier, Alexander, Saïd Business School Working Papers (Oxford: University of Oxford), 2016, Oxford, 18–20, estimates the direct costs of the Barcelona 1992 Summer Olympics to be US$9.7 billion (expressed in 2015 U.S. dollars) with a cost overrun of 266%. This includes only sports-related costs, that is: (i) operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g., expenditures for technology, direct transportation, workforce, administration, security, catering, ceremonies, and medical services; and (ii) direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, and similar structures required to host the Games. Costs excluded from the study are indirect capital and infrastructure costs, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games.WEB,weblink The cost of hosting every Olympics since 1964, Based on working paper from The University of Oxford and Said Business School, 29 July 2016, Joe Myers, World Economic Forum, The costs for Barcelona 1992 may be compared with those of London 2012, which cost US$15 billion with a cost overrun of 76%, and those of Rio 2016 which cost US$4.6 billion with a cost overrun of 51%. The average cost for the Summer Olympics since 1960 is US$5.2 billion, with an average cost overrun of 176%.

Songs and themes

There were two main musical themes for the 1992 Games. The first one was "Barcelona", a classical crossover song composed five years earlier by Freddie Mercury and Mike Moran; Mercury was an admirer of lyric soprano Montserrat Caballé, both recorded the official theme as a duet. Due to Mercury's death eight months earlier, the duo was unable to perform the song together during the opening ceremony. A recording of the song instead played over a travelogue of the city at the start of the opening ceremony, seconds before the official countdown.WEB, Barcelona 92: 11 momentos inolvidables de aquellos Juegos Olímpicos (VÍDEOS, FOTOS),weblink The Huffington Post, 7 September 2016, spanish, WEB,weblink Barcelona 92: inicio de la ceremonia, YouTube, 23 March 2011, "Amigos Para Siempre" (Friends for Life) was the other musical theme. It was written by Andrew Lloyd Webber and Don Black, and sung by Sarah Brightman and José Carreras during the closing ceremonies.Ryuichi Sakamoto composed and conducted the opening ceremony musical score.WEB, Illness, Critical,weblink Doreen D'Agostino Media " Ryuichi Sakamoto and Decca, Doreendagostinomedia.com, 3 September 2010, 23 March 2011, The Opening Olympic fanfare was composed by Angelo Badalamenti and with orchestrations by Joseph Turrin.

Mascot

The official mascot was Cobi, a Catalan sheepdog in cubist style designed by Javier Mariscal.WEB, Barcelona 1992 - Summer Games Mascots,weblink Olympic.org, IOC, 15 October 2015,

Corporate image and identity

A renewal in Barcelona's image and corporate identity could be seen in the publication of posters, commemorative coins, stamps minted by the FNMT in Madrid, and the Barcelona 1992 Olympic Official Commemorative Medals, designed and struck in Barcelona.

See also

References

{{reflist|30em}}

External links

{{commons category|1992 Summer Olympics}}


{{Olympic Games}}{{Nations at the 1992 Summer Olympics}}{{EventsAt1992SummerOlympics}}{{1992 Summer Olympic venues}}{{Authority control}}{{coord|41|21|51|N|2|09|08|E|source:kolossus-frwiki|display=title}}

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