1991 Ukrainian independence referendum

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1991 Ukrainian independence referendum
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A referendum on the Act of Declaration of Independence was held in Ukraine on 1 December 1991.Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, page 1976 {{ISBN|9783832956097}} An overwhelming majority of 92.3% of voters approved the declaration of independence made by the Verkhovna Rada on 24 August 1991.

The referendum

Voters were asked "Do you support the Act of Declaration of Independence of Ukraine?"Nohlen & Stöver, p1985 The text of the Declaration was included as a preamble to the question. The referendum was called by the Parliament of Ukraine to confirm the Act of Independence, which was adopted by the Parliament on 24 August 1991.Historic vote for independence, The Ukrainian Weekly (1 September 1991) Citizens of Ukraine expressed overwhelming support for independence. In the referendum, 31,891,742 registered voters (or 84.18% of the electorate) took part, and among them 28,804,071 (or 92.3%) voted "Yes".On the same day, a presidential election took place. All six candidates campaigned in favour of a "Yes" vote in the independence referendum. Leonid Kravchuk, the parliament chairman and de facto head of state, was elected to serve as the first President of Ukraine.Independence – over 90% vote yes in referendum; Kravchuk elected president of Ukraine, The Ukrainian Weekly (8 December 1991)From 2 December 1991 on Ukraine was globally recognized as an independent state (by other countries).Ukraine and Russia: The Post-Soviet Transition by Roman Solchanyk, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2000, {{ISBN|0742510182}} (page 100)Canadian Yearbook of International Law, Vol 30, 1992, University of British Columbia Press, 1993, {{ISBN|9780774804387}} (page 371)Russia, Ukraine, and the Breakup of the Soviet Union by Roman Szporluk, Hoover Institution Press, 2000, {{ISBN|0817995420}} (page 355 That day the President of the Russian SFSR Boris Yeltsin did the same.Russia's Revolution from Above, 1985–2000: Reform, Transition, and Revolution in the Fall of the Soviet Communist Regime by Gordon M. Hahn, Transaction Publishers, 2001, {{ISBN|0765800497}} (page 482)A Guide to the United States' History of Recognition, Diplomatic, and Consular Relations, by Country, since 1776: Ukraine, Office of the HistorianThe Limited Partnership: Building a Russian-US Security Community by James E. Goodby and Benoit Morel, Oxford University Press, 1993, {{ISBN|0198291612}} (page 48)Ukrainian Independence, Worldwide News Ukraine In a telegram of congratulations Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev sent to Kravchuk soon after the referendum, Gorbachev included his hopes for close Ukrainian cooperation and understanding in "the formation of a union of sovereign states".NEWSBRIEFS FROM UKRAINE, The Ukrainian Weekly (8 December 1991)Ukraine was the second-most powerful republic in the Soviet Union both economically and politically (behind only Russia), and its secession ended any realistic chance of Gorbachev keeping the Soviet Union together. By December 1991 all former Soviet Republics except the RSFSRRussia's New Politics: The Management of a Postcommunist Society by Stephen K. White, Cambridge University Press, 1999, {{ISBN|0521587379}} (page 240) and the Kazakh SSR had formally seceded from the Union.Citizens in the Making in Post-Soviet States by Olena Nikolayenko, Routledge, 2001, {{ISBN|0415596041}} (page 101) A week after his election, Kravchuk joined with Yeltsin and Belarusian leader Stanislav Shushkevich in signing the Belavezha Accords, which declared that the Soviet Union had ceased to exist.Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation by Robert A. Saunders & Vlad Strukov, Scarecrow Press, 2010, {{ISBN|0810854759}} (page 75) The Soviet Union officially dissolved on 26 December.Turning Points – Actual and Alternate Histories: The Reagan Era from the Iran Crisis to Kosovo by Rodney P. Carlisle and J. Geoffrey Golson, ABC-CLIO, 2007, {{ISBN|1851098852}} (page 111)


File:Buleten 1991-12.jpg|thumb|The ballot paper used in the referendum, with the text of the Declaration of Independence printed on it.]]Ukrainian media had converted (wikt:en masse|en masse) to the independence ideal.Polls showed 63% support for the "Yes" campaign in September 1991; that grew to 77% in the first week of October 1991 and 88% by mid-November 1991.55% of the ethnic Russians in Ukraine voted for independence.The Return: Russia's Journey from Gorbachev to Medvedev by Daniel Treisman, Free Press, 2012, {{ISBN|1416560726}} (page 178){| class=wikitable style=text-align:right!Choice!Votes!%
Invalid/blank votes670,117–
Registered voters/turnout37,885,55584.2
Source: Nohlen & Stöver

By region

The Act of Independence was supported by a majority of voters in each of the 27 administrative regions of Ukraine: 24 Oblasts, 1 Autonomous Republic, and 2 Special Municipalities (Kiev City and Sevastopol City). Voter turnout was lowest in Eastern and Southern Ukraine. Calculating the "yes"-votes as a percentage of the total electorate reveals a lower percentage of all possible voters in Kharkiv, Luhansk, Donetsk, and Odessa Oblasts and Crimea supported Ukrainian independence than in the rest of the country.Ukrainian Nationalism in the 1990s: A Minority Faith by Andrew Wilson, Cambridge University Press, 1996, {{ISBN|0521574579}} (page 128)(File:Ukr Referendum 1991 No.png|thumbnail|No-vote in % per Ukrainian Oblast){| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" style="background: #f9f9f9; border: 1px solid #aaaaaa; border-collapse: collapse; white-space: nowrap; text-align: left" class="sortable"!Subdivision !! Voted "Yes" % !! Voted "Yes" % of total electorateUkrainian Nationalism in the 1990s: A Minority Faith by Andrew Wilson, Cambridge University Press, 1996, {{ISBN|0521574579}} (page 129)
Crimean ASSR > 54.19 align=center Russians in the Former Soviet Republics by Pål Kolstø, Indiana University Press, 1995, {{ISBN>978-0-253-32917-2}} (page 191)Ukraine and Russia:Representations of the Past by Serhii Plokhy, University of Toronto Press, 2008, {{ISBN|978-0-8020-9327-1}} (page 184))
Cherkasy Oblast > 96.03 align=center| 87
Chernihiv Oblast > 93.74 align=center| 85
Chernivtsi Oblast > 92.78 align=center| 81
Dnipropetrovsk Oblast > 90.36 align=center| 74
Donetsk Oblast > 83.90 align=center| 64
Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast > 98.42 align=center| 94
Kharkiv Oblast > 86.33 align=center| 65
Kherson Oblast > 90.13 align=center| 75
Khmelnytskyi Oblast > 96.30 align=center| 90
Kiev Oblast > 95.52 align=center| 84
Kirovohrad Oblast > 93.88 align=center| 83
Luhansk Oblast > 83.86 align=center| 68
Lviv Oblast > 97.46 align=center| 93
Mykolayiv Oblast > 89.45 align=center| 75
Odessa Oblast > 85.38 align=center| 64
Poltava Oblast > 94.93 align=center| 87
Rivne Oblast > 95.96 align=center| 89
Sumy Oblast > 92.61 align=center| 82
Ternopil Oblast > 98.67 align=center| 96
Vinnytsia Oblast > 95.43 align=center| 87
Volyn Oblast > 96.32 align=center| 90
Zakarpattia Oblast > 92.59 align=center| 77
Zaporizhzhia Oblast > 90.66 align=center| 73
Zhytomyr Oblast > 95.06 align=center| 86
Kiev>Kiev City align=center 75
Sevastopol>Sevastopol City align=center 40 (with a 60% turnout of voters in all Crimea)
National Total > 90.32 align=center Post-Communist Ukraine by Bohdan Harasymiw, Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, 2002, {{ISBN>1895571448}}

See also

{{Politics of Ukraine}}



External links

  • WEB,weblink Law of Ukraine N 1660-XII on organization of referendum, Ukrainian, 11 October 1991,
  • WEB,weblink Law of Ukraine N 1661-XII on text for referendum, Ukrainian, 11 October 1991,
  • "The funeral of the empire", Leonid Kravchuk, Zerkalo Nedeli (Mirror Weekly), 23 August – 1 September 2001. Available online in Russian{{Dead link|date=July 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=no }} and weblink" title="">in Ukrainian.
  • "Confide in people," Dr. Stanislav Kulchytsky, Zerkalo Nedeli (Mirror Weekly), 1–7 December 2001. Available online weblink" title="">in Russian and weblink" title="">in Ukrainian.
{{1991 Independence of Ukraine}}{{Ukrainian Elections}}{{Fall of Communism}}{{Soviet independence referendums}}

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