18th century

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18th century
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{{other uses}}{{Centurybox|18}}(File:1700 CE world map.PNG|thumb|Political boundaries at the beginning of year 1700)File:Prise de la Bastille.jpg|thumb|Storming of the Bastille, July 14, 1789, an iconic event of the French RevolutionFrench Revolution File:7 Muhammad Shah and Nadir Shah. 1740, Musee Guimet, Paris.jpg|thumb|Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah with the Persian invader Nader ShahNader ShahFile:Maquina vapor Watt ETSIIM.jpg|thumb|Development of the Watt steam engine in the late 18th century was an important element in the Industrial RevolutionIndustrial RevolutionFile:Tipu Sultan seated on his throne.jpg|thumb| Indian emperor Tipu SultanTipu SultanFile:Canadian_militiamen_and_British_soldiers_repulse_the_American_assault_at_Sault-au-Matelot.jpg|thumb|The American Revolutionary WarAmerican Revolutionary War The 18th century lasted from January 1, 1701 to December 31, 1800. During the 18th century, elements of Enlightenment thinking culminated in the American, French, and Haitian revolutions. This was an age of violent slave trading, and global human trafficking. The reactions against monarchical and aristocratic power helped fuel the revolutionary responses against it throughout the century.In continental Europe, philosophers dreamed of a brighter age. For some, this dream turned into a reality with the French Revolution of 1789, though later compromised by the excesses of the Reign of Terror (1793–1794) under Maximilien Robespierre. At first, many monarchies of Europe embraced Enlightenment ideals, but with the French Revolution they feared losing their power and formed broad coalitions for the counter-revolution. The Ottoman Empire experienced an unprecedented period of peace and economic expansion, taking part in no European wars from 1740 to 1768. As a consequence the empire did not share in Europe's military improvements during the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), causing its military to fall behind and suffer defeats against Russia in the second half of the century.18th century music included the Late Baroque period (including Johan Sebastian Bach and George Frederic Handel) and the classical period (including Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart).The 18th century also marked the end of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as an independent state. The once-powerful and vast kingdom, which had once conquered Moscow and defeated great Ottoman armies, collapsed under numerous invasions. Its semi-democratic government system was not robust enough to rival the neighboring monarchies of the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire and the Austrian Empire which divided the Commonwealth territories between themselves, changing the landscape of Central European politics for the next hundred years.European colonization of the Americas and other parts of the world intensified and associated mass migrations of people grew in size as the Age of Sail continued.Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the French and Indian War in the 1760s and the conquest of large parts of India, especially Bengal. However, Britain lost many of its North American colonies after the American Revolution and Indian wars.In Central Asia, Nader Shah caused major invasions and led successful military campaigns and the Durrani Empire was founded.In the Indian subcontinent, the death of the Islamic Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb marks the end of the medieval India and the beginning of the modern India and the beginning of European invasion India. The victory of the British East India Company over the Nawab of Bengal and their French allies{{sfn|Campbell|Watts|1760|loc=weblink}} in the Battle of Plassey caused the deindustrialization of Bengal and the beginning of the British Industrial Revolution which radically changed human society and the environment. The British invasion since then expanded to cover much of South Asia. French-Italian emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, formed one of the Franco-Indian alliances with the major economic power Kingdom of Mysore,{{Citation |title=Why Europe Grew Rich and Asia Did Not: Global Economic Divergence, 1600–1850 |given=Prasannan |surname=Parthasarathi |publisher=Cambridge University Press |year=2011 |isbn=978-1-139-49889-0 |page=207 |url=}} governed by Tipu Sultan and his father Hyder Ali, who pioneered the use of Rocket artillery and the world's first iron-cased rockets, the Mysorean rockets, through the compilation of the Fathul Mujahidin.BOOK, Allana, Gulam, Muslim political thought through the ages: 1562–1947,weblink 18 January 2013, 1988, 2, Royal Book Company, Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania, 78,weblink The Anglo-Mysore Wars were fought and the Treaty of Mangalore was initiated in 1784.The defeat of the British resulted in the formation of the newly independent United States. Western historians have occasionally defined the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work. For example, the "short" 18th century may be defined as 1715–1789, denoting the period of time between the death of Louis XIV of France and the start of the French Revolution, with an emphasis on directly interconnected events.BOOK, Anderson, M. S., Historians and Eighteenth-Century Europe, 1715–1789, Oxford University Press, 1979, 978-0-19-822548-5, 185538307, BOOK, Ribeiro, Aileen, Dress in Eighteenth-Century Europe 1715–1789 (revised edition), Yale University Press, 2002, 978-0-300-09151-9, 186413657, To historians who expand the century to include larger historical movements, the "long" 18th centuryBOOK, Baines, Paul, The Long 18th Century, Arnold, London, 2004, 978-0-340-81372-0, may run from the Glorious Revolution of 1688 to the Battle of Waterloo in 1815BOOK, Marshall, P. J., The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume II: The Eighteenth Century (Oxford History of the British Empire), Oxford University Press, USA, 2001, 978-0-19-924677-9, 174866045, , "Introduction" by P. J. Marshall, page 1 or even later.BOOK, O'Gorman, Frank, The Long Eighteenth Century: British Political and Social History 1688–1832 (The Arnold History of Britain Series)
year= 1997 oclc= 243883533,



File:Marlborough-duke-first.jpg|thumb|upright|John Churchill, 1st Duke of MarlboroughJohn Churchill, 1st Duke of MarlboroughFile:Marten's Poltava.jpg|thumb|upright|The Battle of Poltava in 1709 turned the Russian EmpireRussian Empire File:Europe, 1700 - 1714.png|thumb|Europe at the beginning of the War of the Spanish SuccessionWar of the Spanish Succession File:Portrait of the Qianlong Emperor in Court Dress.jpg|thumb|upright|Qianlong EmperorQianlong Emperor File:Frederick II of Prussia Coloured drawing.png|upright|thumb|Frederick II the Great, King of Prussia]]File:The Battle of Culloden.jpg|thumb|upright|The extinction of the Scottish clan system came with the defeat of the clansmen at the Battle of CullodenBattle of Culloden File:Benjamin West 005.jpg|thumb|upright|The Death of General WolfeThe Death of General Wolfe


File:Catherinethegreatroslin.jpg|upright|thumb|Catherine the GreatCatherine the GreatFile:Allan Ramsay - King George III in coronation robes - Google Art Project.jpg|upright|thumb|George III, King of Great Britain.]] File:Encyclopedie de D'Alembert et Diderot - Premiere Page - ENC 1-NA5.jpg|thumb|upright|Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiersEncyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiersFile:Rejtan Upadek Polski Matejko.jpg|thumb|upright|Rejtan and the Partitions of Poland on a painting by Jan MatejkoJan Matejko File:Portrait of George Washington-transparent.png|thumb|upright|George WashingtonGeorge WashingtonFile:Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in 1789.jpg|thumb|upright|Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the CitizenDeclaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen File:1801 Antoine-Jean Gros - Bonaparte on the Bridge at Arcole.jpg|thumb|upright|Napoleon at the Bridge of the Arcole ]]

Significant people

World leaders, politicians, military

{{see also|Founding Fathers of the United States}}
File:Jean-Marc Nattier, Pierre Ier (1717).jpg|thumb|upright|Peter the GreatPeter the GreatFile:Hyacinthe Rigaud 009.jpg|thumb|upright|Louis XVLouis XVFile:Anniex.jpg|thumb|upright|Queen Anne ]]File:Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun - Marie-Antoinette au livre - 1785.jpg|upright|thumb|Marie Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of AustriaArchduchess of AustriaFile:Ferdinand VI 2.jpg|thumb|upright|Ferdinand VI, King of Spain]]File:Joseph Kreutzinger - Alexander Suvorov.jpg|upright|thumb|Prince Alexander SuvorovAlexander SuvorovFile:HoratioNelson1.jpg|upright|thumb|Horatio NelsonHoratio NelsonFile:Général Toussaint Louverture.jpg|thumb|upright|Toussaint LouvertureToussaint LouvertureFile:Benjamin Franklin by Jean-Baptiste Greuze.jpg|thumb|upright|Benjamin FranklinBenjamin FranklinFile:HGM Weikert Portrait Joseph II.jpg|upright|thumb|Joseph II of AustriaJoseph II of AustriaFile:Louis16-1775.jpg|thumb|upright|Louis XVI ]]File:Robespierre.jpg|thumb|upright|RobespierreRobespierreFile:Korea-Yeongjo-King of Joseon-c1.jpg|thumb|upright|YeongjoYeongjo

Show business, theatre, entertainers

{{see also|Theatre Royal, Drury Lane|Haymarket Theatre|Sichuan opera}}File:Bartolomeo Nazari - Portrait of Farinelli 1734 - Royal College of Music London.jpg|thumb|upright|FarinelliFarinelliFile:Beaumarchais.jpg|thumb|upright|BeaumarchaisBeaumarchais

Musicians, composers

File:Young Bach2.jpg|thumb|upright|Johann Sebastian BachJohann Sebastian BachFile:Mozart (unfinished) by Lange 1782.jpg|thumb|upright|Wolfgang Amadeus MozartWolfgang Amadeus MozartFile:Georg Friedrich Händel.jpg|thumb|upright|George Frideric HändelGeorge Frideric Händel

Visual artists, painters, sculptors, printmakers, architects

File:Rosalba Carriera Portrait Antoine Watteau.jpg|thumb|upright|Antoine WatteauAntoine WatteauFile:Chardin pastel selfportrait.jpg|thumb|upright|Jean-Baptiste-Siméon ChardinJean-Baptiste-Siméon ChardinFile:Gilbert Stuart Sir Joshua Reynolds.jpg|thumb|upright|Joshua ReynoldsJoshua ReynoldsFile:Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun - selfportrait (Kimbell Art Museum, 1781-2).jpg|thumb|upright|Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le BrunLouise Élisabeth Vigée Le BrunFile:David Self Portrait.jpg|thumb|upright|Jacques-Louis DavidJacques-Louis David

Writers, poets

File:D'après Maurice Quentin de La Tour, Portrait de Voltaire (c. 1737, musée Antoine Lécuyer).jpg|thumb|upright|VoltaireVoltaireFile:Alexander Pope by Michael Dahl.jpg|thumb|upright|Alexander PopeAlexander PopeFile:Mary Wollstonecraft by John Opie (c. 1797).jpg|thumb|upright|Mary WollstonecraftMary WollstonecraftFile:Gerhard von Kügelgen 001.jpg|thumb|upright|Friedrich SchillerFriedrich Schiller

Philosophers, theologians

File:Montesquieu 1.png|thumb|upright|MontesquieuMontesquieuFile:Louis-Michel van Loo 001.jpg|thumb|upright|Denis DiderotDenis DiderotFile:Jean-Jacques Rousseau (painted portrait).jpg|thumb|upright|Jean-Jacques RousseauJean-Jacques Rousseau

Scientists, researchers

File:Alembert.jpg|thumb|upright|Jean le Rond d'AlembertJean le Rond d'AlembertFile:Alessandro Volta.jpeg|thumb|upright|Alessandro VoltaAlessandro VoltaFile:Carl von Linné.jpg|thumb|upright|Carl LinnaeusCarl LinnaeusFile:Leonhard Euler.jpg|thumb|upright|Leonhard EulerLeonhard EulerFile:Lomonosovportrait.jpg|thumb|upright|Mikhail LomonosovMikhail LomonosovFile:James Watt by Henry Howard.jpg|upright|thumb|James Watt ]]


File:Blackbeard.gif|150px|thumb|right|Edward TeachEdward Teach

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

File:Spinning jenny.jpg|thumb|upright|The Spinning JennySpinning JennyFile:Red building Putuo Zongcheng Temple.JPG|thumb|upright|The Chinese Putuo Zongcheng Temple of Chengde, completed in 1771, during the reign of the Qianlong EmperorQianlong Emperor

Literary and philosophical achievements

Musical works



Further reading

  • Jeremy Black and Roy Porter, eds. A Dictionary of Eighteenth-Century World History (1994) 890pp
  • Klekar, Cynthia. “Fictions of the Gift: Generosity and Obligation in Eighteenth-Century English Literature.” Innovative Course Design Winner. American Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies: Wake Forest University, 2004. . Refereed.
  • The Wallace Collection, London, houses one of the finest collections of 18th-century decorative arts from France, England and Italy, including paintings, furniture, porcelain and gold boxes.
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