17th century

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17th century
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{{Centurybox|17}}The 17th century was the century that lasted from January 1, 1601, to December 31, 1700. It falls into the Early Modern period of Europe and in that continent (whose impact on the world was increasing) was characterized by the Baroque cultural movement, the latter part of the Spanish Golden Age, the Dutch Golden Age, the French Grand Siècle dominated by Louis XIV, the Scientific Revolution, the world's first public company Dutch East India, and according to some historians, the General Crisis. The greatest military conflicts were the Thirty Years' War,WEB
, The Thirty-Years-War
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, the Great Turkish War, Mughal–Safavid Wars (Mughal–Safavid War (1622–23), Mughal–Safavid War (1649–53)), Mughal-Maratha Wars, and the Dutch-Portuguese War. It was during this period also that European colonization of the Americas began in earnest, including the exploitation of the silver deposits, which resulted in bouts of inflation as wealth was drawn into Europe.WEB,weblink The Seventeenth-Century Decline, 13 August 2008, The Library of Iberian resources online, File:Aurangzeb-portrait.jpg|thumb|upright|Mughal emperor AurangzebAurangzebFile:Hendrick Avercamp - A Scene on the Ice - WGA01076.jpg|thumb|upright|A scene on the ice, Dutch RepublicDutch RepublicFile:Polska rullen - Livrustkammaren - 55709.tif|thumb|upright|Persian Ambassador during his entry into Kraków for the wedding ceremonies of King Sigismund III of PolandSigismund III of PolandFile:Albrecht Wallenstein.jpeg|thumb|upright|Catholic general Albrecht von WallensteinAlbrecht von WallensteinFile:René Descartes i samtal med Sveriges drottning, Kristina.jpg|thumb|upright|René Descartes with Queen Christina of SwedenChristina of SwedenFile:John de Critz the Elder James I of England with a Red Curtain.jpg|thumb|right|upright|James I of England and VI of Scotland ]]File:Tsar Mikhail I.jpg|thumb|upright|Tsar Michael I of RussiaMichael I of RussiaFile:Jan van der Hoecke - The Battle of Nördlingen, 1634.jpg|upright|thumb|Battle of Nördlingen (1634). The Catholic Imperial army, bolstered by professional Habsburg Spanish troops won a great victory in the battle over the combined Protestant armies of Sweden and their German allies]]File:La ronda de noche, por Rembrandt van Rijn.jpg|thumb|upright|The Night Watch or The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq, 1642. Oil on canvas; on display at the Rijksmuseum, AmsterdamAmsterdamFile:1622 massacre jamestown de Bry.jpg|thumb|upright|The massacre of settlers in 1622. The massacre was instrumental in causing English colonists to view all natives as enemies.]]File:Europe map 1648.png|thumb|upright|Map of Europe in 1648 at the end of the Thirty Years' WarThirty Years' WarFile:Mazarin-mignard.jpg|thumb|upright|Cardinal MazarinCardinal MazarinFile:Lasalle au Mississippi.jpg|thumb|upright|Claiming Louisiana for France]]File:Tokugawa Ieyasu2.JPG|thumb|upright|Shōgun Tokugawa IeyasuTokugawa IeyasuIn the Islamic world, the Gunpowder Empires, which are the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughals grew in strength. Especially in the Indian subcontinent, Mughal architecture, culture and art reached its zenith, while the empire itself, during the sharia reign of Emperor Aurangzeb, is believed to have had the world's largest economy, bigger than the entirety of Western Europe and worth 25% of global GDP,Maddison, Angus (2003): Development Centre Studies The World Economy Historical Statistics: Historical Statistics, OECD Publishing, {{ISBN|9264104143}}, pages 259–261 and its wealthiest province, the Bengal Subah signaled the period of proto-industrialization.BOOK, The Ashgate Companion to the History of Textile Workers, 1650–2000, Lex Heerma van Voss, Els Hiemstra-Kuperus, Elise van Nederveen Meerkerk, The Long Globalization and Textile Producers in India, Ashgate Publishing, 2010, 255,weblink In Japan, Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Tokugawa shogunate at the beginning of the century, beginning the Edo period; the isolationist Sakoku policy began in the 1630s and lasted until the 19th century. In China, the collapsing Ming dynasty was challenged by a series of conquests led by the Manchu warlord Nurhaci, which were consolidated by his son Hong Taiji and finally consummated by his grandson, the Shunzi Emperor, founder of the Qing dynasty.From the middle decades of the 17th century, European politics were increasingly dominated by the Kingdom of France of Louis XIV, where royal power was solidified domestically in the civil war of the Fronde. The semi-feudal territorial French nobility was weakened and subjugated to the power of an absolute monarchy through the reinvention of the Palace of Versailles from a hunting lodge to a gilded prison, in which a greatly expanded royal court could be more easily kept under surveillance. With domestic peace assured, Louis XIV caused the borders of France to be expanded. It was during this century that English monarch became a symbolic figurehead and Parliament was the dominant force in government – a contrast to most of Europe, in particular France.By the end of the century, Europeans and Indians were aware of logarithms, electricity, the telescope and microscope, calculus, universal gravitation, Newton's Laws of Motion, air pressure and calculating machines due to the work of the first scientists of the Scientific Revolution, including Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, René Descartes, Pierre Fermat, Blaise Pascal, Robert Boyle, Christiaan Huygens, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton, and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. It was also a period of development of culture in general (especially theater, music, visual arts and philosophy).



File:Jan Pieterszoon Coen.jpg|thumb|180px|Jan Pieterszoon Coen (8 January 1587 – 21 September 1629), the founder of Batavia, was an officer of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in the early seventeenth century, holding two terms as its Governor-General of the Dutch East IndiesGovernor-General of the Dutch East Indies


File:1680 van der Meulen Louis XIV bei Lobith anagoria.JPG|thumb|180px|French invasion of the Netherlands, which Louis XIV initiated in 1672, starting the Franco-Dutch WarFranco-Dutch WarFile:Atlas Van der Hagen-KW1049B10 050-De belegering van Wenen door de Turken in 1683.jpeg|thumb|180px|The Battle of Vienna marked the historic end of the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into Europe.]]

Significant people

File:Portrait louis xiv.jpg|thumb|right|140px|Louis XIVLouis XIVFile:Cardinal de Richelieu mg 0053.jpg|thumb|right|140px|Cardinal RichelieuCardinal RichelieuFile:Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper.jpg|thumb|right|140px|Oliver CromwellOliver CromwellFile:Attributed to Jacob Hoefnagel - Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden 1611-1632 - Google Art Project.jpg|thumb|right|140px|Gustav II Adolf of SwedenGustav II Adolf of SwedenFile:Anna of Austria by Rubens (1622-1625, Norton Simon Museum).jpg|thumb|right|140px|Anne of AustriaAnne of Austria


File:Bernardo Strozzi - Claudio Monteverdi (c.1630).jpg|thumb|140px|right|Claudio MonteverdiClaudio Monteverdi{{see also|List of Baroque composers}}

Visual artists

File:Diego Velázquez Autorretrato 45 x 38 cm - Colección Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Carlos - Museo de Bellas Artes de Valencia.jpg|thumb|upright|Diego VelázquezDiego Velázquez{{see also|Baroque painting|Baroque architecture|Baroque sculpture}}


File:LopedeVega.jpg|thumb|upright|Lope de VegaLope de VegaFile:Molière - Nicolas Mignard (1658).jpg|thumb|upright|MolièreMolière{{see also|French literature of the 17th century|Spanish Golden Age}}


{{See also|Exploration}}

Science and philosophy

File:Johannes Kepler 1610.jpg|thumb|upright|Johannes KeplerJohannes KeplerFile:Frans Hals - Portret van René Descartes.jpg|thumb|upright|René DescartesRené Descartes File:Justus_Sustermans_-_Portrait_of_Galileo_Galilei,_1636.jpg|thumb|upright|Galileo GalileiGalileo GalileiFile:GodfreyKneller-IsaacNewton-1689.jpg|thumb|upright|Sir Isaac NewtonSir Isaac NewtonFile:Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Bernhard Christoph Francke.jpg|thumb|upright|Gottfried LeibnizGottfried Leibniz{{see also|Scientific Revolution|Age of Enlightenment}}

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

{{see also|Timeline of historic inventions#17th century}}Major changes in philosophy and science take place, often characterized as the Scientific revolution.



Further reading

File:Detail of Tekke Lot 86 2019.jpeg|thumb|Detail of a 17th-century Tekke Turkmen carpet]]
  • Chang, Chun-shu, and Shelley Hsueh-lun Chang. ''Crisis and Transformation in Seventeenth-Century China" (1998).
  • Reid, A. J. S. Trade and State Power in 16th & 17th Century Southeast Asia (1977).
  • Spence, J. D. The Death of Woman Wang: Rural Life in China in the 17th Century (1978).

Focus on Europe

  • Clark, George. The Seventeenth Century (2nd ed. 1945).
  • Hampshire, Stuart. The Age of Reason the 17th Century Philosophers, Selected, with Introduction and Interpretive Commentary (1961).
  • Lewitter, Lucian Ryszard. "Poland, the Ukraine and Russia in the 17th Century." The Slavonic and East European Review (1948): 157–171. in JSTOR
  • Ogg, David. Europe in the Seventeenth Century (6th ed. 1965).
  • Rowbotham, Sheila. Hidden from history: Rediscovering women in history from the 17th century to the present (1976).
  • Trevor-Roper, Hugh R. "The general crisis of the 17th century." Past & Present 16 (1959): 31–64.

External links

  • Vistorica: Timelines of 17th century events, science, culture and persons
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