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.xxx
[ temporary import ]
please note:
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{{other uses|XXX (disambiguation)}}{{Use dmy dates|date=April 2013}}







factoids
| restrictions=Applicants are pre-screened and their existing Web sites checked to ascertain they are part of the adult entertainment community; a post-registration challenge process exists also; standards such as not marketing to minors must be adhered to| structure=Direct second-level registrations allowed| document=RFC 3675, ICANN New sTLD RFP Application| disputepolicy=UDRP, Charter Eligibility Dispute Resolution Procedure (CEDRP), Start-Up Trademark Opposition Procedure (STOP)| website=ICM Registry| dnssec = No}}.xxx (pronounced "dot triple-ecks" or "dot ecks ecks ecks") is a sponsored top-level domain (sTLD) intended as a voluntary option for pornographic sites on the Internet. The sponsoring organization is the International Foundation for Online Responsibility (IFFOR).WEB,weblink International Foundation for Online Responsibility, Iffor.org, 21 March 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110325212454weblink">weblink 25 March 2011, no, dmy, The registry is operated by ICM Registry LLC. The ICANN Board voted to approve the sTLD on 18 March 2011.WEB,weblink Adopted Board Resolutions, 21 March 2011, 18 March 2011, ICANN,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110423020356weblink">weblink 23 April 2011, no, dmy, It went into operation on 15 April 2011.NEWS,weblink XXX domain names go live, Kevin Murphy, 17 April 2011, The Register, 17 May 2011, The TLD entered its sunrise period on 7 September 2011 at 16:00 UTC;WEB,weblink XDnet Web Hosting Blog » Blog Archive » .XXX is here â€“ Sunrise period has began, Xdnet.co.uk, 8 September 2011, 11 November 2011, the sunrise period ended 28 October 2011. Landrush period lasted from 8 November through 25 November, and General Availability commenced on 6 December 2011.WEB,weblink XDnet Web Hosting Blog » Blog Archive » .XXX â€“ What’s it all about?, Xdnet.co.uk, 27 July 2011, 11 November 2011,

Background

A gTLD (generic top-level domain) for sexually explicit material was proposed as one tool for dealing with the conflict between those who wish to provide and access such material through the Internet, and those who wish to prevent access to it, either by children and adolescents, or by employees at their workplaces.Advocates of the idea argue that it will be easier for parents and employers to block the entire TLD, rather than using more complex and error-prone content-based filtering, without imposing any restrictions on those who wish to access it. Editors of explicit content sites, however, were afraid that the use of a single TLD like .xxx would also make it easier for search engines to block all of their content.WEB,weblink .XXX domains go live on World Wide Web â€“ Adult sites to become more controlled | Blog Gadget Helpline/, Gadget Helpline.com, 18 April 2011, 19 April 2011, Critics of the idea argue that because there is no requirement for providers of explicit content to use the TLD, sexually explicit material will still be commonplace in other domains, making it ineffectual at restricting access, and simply creating a new "landrush" as registrants of .com domains hosting explicit material attempt to duplicate their registrations in the .xxx domain, competing with operators who hope to register desirable names unavailable in other TLDs. There is also concern that the existence of .xxx will lead to legislation making its use mandatory for sexually explicit material, leading to legal conflicts over the definition of "sexually explicit", free speech rights, and jurisdiction.WEB,weblink Senators Baucus and Pryor Author Bill to Create Mandatory Adult TLD, YNOT, 16 March 2006, 21 March 2011, WEB,weblink Mandatory .XXX Senate Bill Created, SEO BlackHat, 16 March 2006, 21 March 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101127154528weblink">weblink 27 November 2010, yes, dmy-all, There were also early indications that .xxx domain names will be registered not with the intent to focus on pornographic content, but to use the adult connotations as a benefit to a marketing strategy.WEB, Lance Ulanoff,weblink XXX domains an obvious failure (user comments), Mashable, 10 December 2011, 29 December 2011, An example is the registration of kite.xxx, which is aimed at the extreme sport of kitesurfing, thus benefiting from sexual connotations and innuendo for humor and promotional purposes. Another example of a .xxx domain name being registered without a focus on pornographic content was the registration of popebenedict.xxx, which contained pro-Islamic content despite being named after Pope Benedict XVI.Murphy, Kevin (19 March 2012). Pope Benedict in .XXX pro-Islam cybersquat drama. theregister.co.uk.

Proposal by ICM Registry

The .XXX TLD was first proposed in 2000 by ICM Registry and resubmitted in 2004, but it faced strong opposition from politicians and conservative groups.NEWS, Previous post Next post,weblink ICANN Approves .XXX Red-Light District for the Internet | Epicenter, Wired, 19 March 2011, 21 March 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110322164758weblink">weblink 22 March 2011, no, dmy, ICANN announced on 1 June 2005 a preliminary approval of .xxx as an sTLD similar to .aero, .travel, etc. ICM said it would charge $60/year for domains. In December 2005, discussions about the implementation of .xxx were taken off the agenda of ICANN Governmental Advisory Committee (GAC), placing its future in doubt. In its March 2006 meeting, the GAC formulated a letter of concern to the ICANN board about .xxx. On 10 May 2006, ICANN reversed the approval.Internet agency nixes ‘.xxx’ Web addresses. On 6 January 2007, ICANN put up for public comment a revised proposalWEB, ICANN Publishes Revision to Proposed ICM (.XXX) Registry Agreement for Public Comment,weblinkweblink 20 April 2009, 14 April 2009, no, dmy, following changes to the policy of the ICM registry including the policing of any site that signs up to use the .xxx registry.NEWS,weblink Proposal for porn domain revived, BBC News, 8 January 2007, 2 November 2009, On 30 March 2007, the ICANN board again rejected the .xxx proposal for the third time.MSNBC: Agency votes against '.xxx' domain for porn. Retrieved 11 July 2007.On 6 June 2008, in accordance with ICANN bylaws, ICM filed an application with the International Centre for Dispute Resolution for an independent review challenging ICANN's decision. The filing became ICDR Case No. 50 117 T 00224 08, and in September 2009, a live hearing was held in Washington, DC, where both sides submitted documentary evidence and witness testimony. on 19 February 2010, the ICDR's independent review panel – consisting of Stephen M. Schwebel, Jan Paulsson and Dickran Tevrizian – issued its declaration.WEB,weblink Independent Review Panel Declaration, ICANN, 19 March 2010, 2 March 2014, The panel found that the application for the ".XXX sTLD met the required sponsorship criteria," and that "the Board’s reconsideration of that finding was not consistent with the application of neutral, objective and fair documented policy".WEB,weblink ICANN Options Following the IRP Declaration on ICM's .XXX Application, ICANN, 26 March 2010, 6 May 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100601104745weblink">weblink 1 June 2010, no, dmy, At the ICANN meeting in Nairobi in March 2010 the board resolved to consider "process options". A 45-day public comment was opened on 26 March 2010.WEB,weblink Public Comment: Report of Possible Process Options for Further Consideration of the ICM Application for the .XXX sTLD, ICANN, 26 March 2010, 6 May 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100428064011weblink">weblink 28 April 2010, no, dmy, At the Brussels ICANN meeting in June 2010, the ICANN board resolved to restart the process, including renewed due diligence and GAC consultations.WEB, Adopted Board Resolutions,weblink ICANN, 25 June 2010, 21 March 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110613123143weblink">weblink 13 June 2011, no, dmy, On 18 March 2011, ICANN's board approved the execution of the registry agreement with ICM for the .xxx sponsored top level domain. The vote was nine in favor, four against, with three abstentions.WEB,weblink ICANN Board – dot xxx decision – March 18, 2011, 21 March 2011, 20 March 2011, Wwwhatsup, ICM is expected to make over $200 million a year, with 3 to 5 million domain registrations, as companies are anticipated to defensively register their domains.WEB,weblink ICANN Approves .XXX Domain for Adult Web Content, eweek.com, Cloud Computing News, 11 November 2011,

Opposition

Manwin suits

On 16 November 2011, Manwin International, a dominant pornography company that operates a large number of popular adult websites including YouPorn, filed a request for a second ICANN Independent Review Proceeding. In the request, Manwin asks that the .xxx delegation be voided, or, if not, put up to competition on renewal.WEB,weblink Manwin Licensing International v. ICANN, ICANN, 18 November 2011, On the same day Manwin, together with adult film studio Digital Playground, filed a suit in the Central District of California against ICM alleging antitrust and competition violations.WEB, Complaint - Manwin Licensing International S a r l et al. v. ICM Registry LLC et al., 2:11-cv-09514, No. 1 (C.D.Cal. Nov. 16, 2011),weblink Docket Alarm, WEB, Court Docket - Manwin Licensing International S a r l et al. v. ICM Registry LLC et al.,weblink Among the claims in the suit are that ICANN provided "no competitive process for the award of the .XXX registry contract" and that ICM CEO Stuart Lawley "has announced that he expects to be able (and intends) to prevent the establishment of any other (potentially competing) adult-content TLDs, including through a contractual promise by ICANN not to approve such TLDs".NEWS,weblink Manwin, Digital Playground File Suit Against ICM, ICANN, Rhett Pardon, Xbiz, 16 November 2011, 18 November 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120114005651weblink">weblink 14 January 2012, yes, dmy-all, On 14 August 2012, Judge Philip S. Gutierrez granted in part and denied in part ICANN's motion to dismiss Manwin's claims and allowed the case against ICANN to move forward.WEB, Order Granting in Party and Denying in Part ICANN and ICM's Motion to Dismiss,weblink Docket Alarm, Inc., 19 July 2013, On 10 May 2013, the case was voluntarily dismissed by the parties, likely due to private settlement.

Free Speech Coalition

The Free Speech Coalition opposed the domain, arguing it would "harm the adult entertainment business" by inviting censorship and blocking, while raising money for ICM without considering the "best interests of the industry".WEB,weblink Pr0n stars to demo against .xxx, 9 Mar 2011,

Alternative implementations

Starting in 2005, there was an alternative implementation of .xxx by New.net, a private domain registration service unaffiliated with ICANN, via an alternative DNS root.WEB,weblink Domain Names, New.net, 21 March 2011,weblink 10 July 2011, yes, dmy-all, WEB,weblink XXX domain drop leads to having the US Government Sued, Spotlighting News, 21 March 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110521132215weblink">weblink 21 May 2011, yes, dmy-all, WEB,weblink The True About New.net Domain Names, Netchain.com, 21 March 2011, New.net no longer offers domain names under this unofficial TLD.{{original research inline|date=September 2012}}Another unofficial .xxx TLD was previously available through the alternative DNS root system administered by the now-defunct AlterNIC.NEWS, Chris Oakes,weblink AlterNIC to Reincarnate?, Wired, 10 April 1998, 21 March 2011,

Accredited registrars

{{As of|2016|12|6}}.WEB, ICM Registry, Accredited Registrars,weblink
  • 101 Domain
  • Ascio
  • DomainTheNet
  • EasySpace
  • En Circa
  • GoDaddy
  • Hexonet
  • IP Mirror
  • Marcaria (company)
  • Nominate.com
  • Rebel.com
  • Regtons
  • Safenames
  • United Domains

References

{{reflist|30em}}
  • NEWS,weblink Manwin, Digital Playground File Suit Against ICM, ICANN, Rhett Pardon, Xbiz, 16 November 2011, 18 November 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120114005651weblink">weblink 14 January 2012, yes, dmy-all,

External links

{{GTLD|expanded=Current}}

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- time: 1:42am EDT - Thu, Mar 21 2019
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