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"Hello, World!" program

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"Hello, World!" program
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{{short description|Traditional beginners' computer program}}{{Redirect|Hello World|other uses|Hello World (disambiguation)}}File:HelloWorld Maktivism ComputerProgramming LEDs.jpg|thumb|A "Hello, World!" message being displayed through long-exposure light paintinglight paintingA "Hello, World!" program generally is a computer program that outputs or displays the message "Hello, World!". Such a program is very simple in most programming languages, and is often used to illustrate the basic syntax of a programming language. It is often the first program written by people learning to code.WEB, James A Langbridge,weblink
AUTHOR=WEBSITE=GITHUB,

Purpose

A "Hello, World!" program is traditionally used to introduce novice programmers to a programming language."Hello, World!" is also traditionally used in a sanity test to make sure that a computer language is correctly installed, and that the operator understands how to use it.

History

File:Hello World Brian Kernighan 1974.jpg|thumb|"Hello, World!" program by Brian KernighanBrian KernighanWhile small test programs have existed since the development of programmable computers, the tradition of using the phrase "Hello, World!" as a test message was influenced by an example program in the seminal 1978 book The C Programming Language.BOOK, Kernighan, Brian W., Brian W. Kernighan, Ritchie, Dennis M., The C Programming Language, 1st, Prentice Hall, 1978, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 0-13-110163-3, Dennis M. Ritchie, {{Disputed inline|Talk page section|for=in this source it is clear that the phrase exists from before|date=May 2019}} The example program in that book prints "{{samp|hello, world}}", and was inherited from a 1974 Bell Laboratories internal memorandum by Brian Kernighan, Programming in C: A Tutorial:WEB,weblink Programming in C: A Tutorial, Kernighan, Brian, 1974, Bell Labs, 9 January 2019, main( ) {
printf("hello, worldn");
}The C language version was preceded by Kernighan's own 1972 A Tutorial Introduction to the Language B,WEB,weblink The Programming Language B, where the first known version of the program is found in an example used to illustrate external variables:main( ) {
extern a, b, c;
putchar(a); putchar(b); putchar(c); putchar('!*n');
}
a 'hell';b 'o, w';c 'orld';The program prints {{samp|hello, world!}} on the terminal, including a newline character. The phrase is divided into multiple variables because in B, a character constant is limited to four ASCII characters. The previous example in the tutorial printed {{samp|hi!}} on the terminal, and the phrase {{samp|hello, world!}} was introduced as a slightly longer greeting that required several character constants for its expression.The Jargon File claims that hello, world originated instead with BCPL (1967).BCPL, Jargon File{{unreliable source?|date=March 2015}}This claim is supported by the archived notes of the inventors of BCPL, Prof. Brian Kernighan at Princeton and Martin Richards at Cambridge.{{citation needed|date=May 2016}}For modern languages, hello, world programs vary in sophistication. For example, the Go programming language introduced a multilingual program,A Tutorial for the Go Programming Language. {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100726052120weblink |date=July 26, 2010 }} The Go Programming Language. Retrieved July 26, 2011. Sun demonstrated a Java hello, world based on scalable vector graphics,NEWS, Jolif, Christophe, Bringing SVG Power to Java Applications, Sun Developer Network, January 2003, and the XL programming language features a spinning Earth hello, world using 3D graphics.WEB, de Dinechin, Christophe, Hello world!,weblink Grenouille Bouillie, July 24, 2010, While some languages such as Perl, Python or Ruby may need only a single statement to print "hello, world", a low-level assembly language may require dozens of commands. Mark Guzdial and Elliot Soloway have suggested that the "hello, world" test message may be outdated now that graphics and sound can be manipulated as easily as text.WEB,weblink Teaching the Nintendo Generation to Program, bfoit.org, 2015-12-27,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160505190520weblink">weblink 2016-05-05, yes,

Variations

missing image!
- PSP-Homebrew.jpeg -
A "Hello, world!" program running on Sony's PlayStation Portable as a proof of concept.
There are many variations on the punctuation and casing of the phrase. Variations include the presence or absence of the comma and exclamation mark, and the capitalization of the 'H', both the 'H' and the 'W', or neither. Some languages are forced to implement different forms, such as "HELLO WORLD", on systems that support only capital letters, while many "hello, world" programs in esoteric languages print out a slightly modified string. For example, the first non-trivial Malbolge program printed "HEllO WORld", this having been determined to be good enough.WEB, Malbolge,weblink Esolang, esolangs-wiki, 28 October 2016, There are variations in spirit, as well. Functional programming languages, like Lisp, ML and Haskell, tend to substitute a factorial program for Hello, World, as functional programming emphasizes recursive techniques, whereas the original examples emphasize I/O, which violates the spirit of pure functional programming by producing side effects. Languages otherwise capable of Hello, World (Assembly, C, VHDL) may also be used in embedded systems, where text output is either difficult (requiring additional components or communication with another computer) or nonexistent. For devices such as microcontrollers, field-programmable gate arrays, and CPLD's, "Hello, World" may thus be substituted with a blinking LED, which demonstrates timing and interaction between components.WEB, Silva, Mike, Introduction to Microcontrollers - Hello World,weblink EmbeddedRelated.com, 19 May 2015, 11 September 2013, WEB, George, Ligo, Blinking LED using Atmega32 Microcontroller and Atmel Studio,weblink electroSome, 19 May 2015, WEB, PT, Ranjeeth, 2. AVR Microcontrollers in Linux HOWTO,weblink The Linux Documentation Project, 19 May 2015, WEB, Andersson, Sven-Ã…ke, 3.2 The first Altera FPGA design,weblink RTE, Realtime Embedded AB, 19 May 2015, 2 April 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150521222132weblink">weblink 21 May 2015, yes, WEB, Fabio, Adam, CPLD Tutorial: Learn programmable logic the easy way,weblink Hackaday, 19 May 2015, 6 April 2014, The Debian and Ubuntu Linux distributions provide the "hello, world" program through the apt packaging system; this allows users to simply type "apt-get install hello" for the program to be installed, along with any software dependencies. While of itself useless, it serves as a sanity check and a simple example to newcomers of how to install a package. It is significantly more useful for developers, however, as it provides an example of how to create a .deb package, either traditionally or using debhelper, and the version of hello used, GNU Hello, serves as an example of how to write a GNU program.WEB, Hello - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation,weblink gnu.org, GNU Project, 7 July 2017,weblink" title="archive.is/20140529011826weblink">weblink 29 May 2014, yes,

Time to Hello World

Time to "Hello World" (TTHW) is a metric for the time to create from scratch a "Hello World" program in a given programming language and run it.WEB, Six Ways to Accelerate Time to First "Hello World",weblink ProgrammableWeb, 7 September 2018, en,

See also

References

{{reflist|30em}}

External links

{{Commons category|Hello World}}
  • WEB, Hello World Collection,weblink helloworldcollection.de, Wolfram, Rösler,
  • WEB, Hello world/Text,weblink Rosetta Code,
  • WEB, Unsung Heroes of IT / Part One: Brian Kernighan,weblink TheUnsungHeroesOfIT.com, 2014-08-23,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160326193543weblink">weblink 2016-03-26, yes,
{{Standard test item}}


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